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Health and care
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Health and care

 Health care or healthcare is the maintenance or improvement of health through the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of disease, illness, injury, and other human and mental disorders. Healthcare is delivered by health professionals in health professionals Physicians and physicians are a part of these health professionals. Dentistry, midwife, nursing, medicine, optometry, audiology, pharmacy, psychology, occupational therapy, physical therapy and other health professions are all part of healthcare. It includes work done in primary care, secondary care, and tertiary care, as well as in public health.

Access to health care may vary across countries, communities, and individuals, largely influenced by social and economic conditions as well as health policies. Countries and jurisdictions have different policies and plans in relation to the personal and population-based health care goals within their societies. Healthcare systems are formed to meet the health needs of targeted populations. Their exact configuration varies between national and subnational entities. In some countries and jurisdictions, health care plans are distributed among market participants, whereas others are planning, more centrally among governments or other coordinating bodies. In all cases, according to the World Health Organization (WHO), a well-functioning healthcare system requires a robust financing mechanism; a well-trained and adequately paid workforce; Trusted information on base decisions and policies; and well maintained health facilities and logistics to deliver quality medicines and technologies.

Healthcare can contribute to a significant part of a country's economy. In 2011, the healthcare industry consumed an average of 9.3 percent of GDP or US $ 3,322 (PPP-adjusted) per capita OECD countries of 34 members. The US (17.7%, or US $ 8,508), the Netherlands (11.9%, 5,099), France (11.6%, 4,118), Germany (11.3%, 4,495), Canada (11.2%, 5669), and Switzerland (11 Switzerland (82.8), Spain and Iceland (82.4), France (82.2) and Australia (82.0), Switzerland (82.8 years), Japan and Italy (82.7), Spain and Iceland (82.4) While the OECD's average exceeds 80 years for the first time in 2011: 80.1 years, a profit of 10 years since 1970. The US (78.7 years) ranges only on 26 of the OECD member countries, but has the highest costs by far . All OECD countries have universal (or almost universal) health coverage, except the US and Mexico.

Health care is traditionally considered as an important determinant in promoting the general physical and mental health and well-being of people around the world. In the 1980s, the WHO as human history in the first disease, to be completely destroyed by health care interventions, was declared in the 1980s of the world's eradication of smallpox.


Contents
1: Delivery
a: 
Primary care

b: Secondary Care
c: Tertiary care
d: Quarantine care
e: Home and community care
f: ratings
2: Related fields
a: Health system
b: Health care Industry
c: Health care research
e: Health care financing
f: Health care administration and regulation
g: Health information technology


Delivery
See also: Health professionals

Primary care can be provided in community health centers.
The delivery of modern health care depends on groups of trained professionals and paraprofessionals coming together as interdisciplinary teams.This includes professionals in medicine, psychology, physiotherapy, nursing, dentistry, midwifery and allied health, along with many other such as public health practitioners, community health workers and assistive personnel, who are systematically providing personal and population-based preventive, curative and rehabilitative care services.

While the definitions of the various types of health care vary depending on different cultural, political, organizational and disciplinary perspectives, there seems to be some consensus that primary care is the first element of ongoing health care process and also includes the provision of secondary and tertiary level of care.Healthcare can be defined as either public or private.

Primary care
Main article: Primary care
See also: Primary Health Care, Ambulatory Care, and Urgent Care

Medical train "Therapist Matvei Mudrov" in Khabarovsk, Russia
Primary care refers to the work of health professionals who work as a first point of consultation for all patients within the health care system.Such a professional will usually be a primary care physici
or, such as a general practitioner or family doctor. Another professional will be a licensed independent practitioner, such as a physiotherapist, or a non-physician primary care provider, such as a physician assistant or nurse practitioner. Depending on the locality, the health system organization can see the patient first see another healthcare professional, such as a pharmacist or nurse. Depending on the nature of the health condition, patients can be referred to for secondary or tertiary care. Primary care is often used as terminal healthcare services that play a role in the local community. It can be provided in different settings, such as Urgent Care Centers which provide same day appointments or services on a walk-in basis. Primary care involves the wide range of health care, including all ages, patients of all socioeconomic and geographic origin patients are seeking optimal health, and patients with all types of acute and chronic physical, mental and social issues, including multiple chronic diseases. Consequently, a primary care practitioner must have a wide range of knowledge in many areas. Continuity is a key characteristic of primary care, as patients usually prefer the same practitioner for routine check-ups and preventive care, health education, and every time they need a new health problem about the first consultation. The International Classification of Primary Care (ICPC) is a standardized instrument for primary care in interventions on information of understanding and analysis based on the patient's visit based on the patient's visit.Common chronic illnesses are usually treated in primary care, such as: hypertension , diabetes, asthma, COPD, depression and anxiety, back pain, gthritis or thyroid dysfunction. Primary care also includes many basic maternal and child health care services, such as family planning services and vaccinations. In the United States, the 2013 National Health Interview Survey found that skin disorders (42.7%), osteoarthritis and joint disorders (33.6%), back problems (23.9%), lipid metabolism (22.4%), and upper respiratory tract disease (22.1%, asthma excluding) was the most common reason for a physician accessible.In the United States, primary care physicians have begun to deliver primary care out of the managed care (insurance-billing) system through direct primary care is a subset of the more familiar concierge medicine. The physicians in this model bill patients are directly for services, either on pre-paid monthly, quarterly, or annual basis, or for each bill in the office. Examples of direct primary care practices include Foundation Health in Colorado and Qliance in Washington. In the context of global population aging, with increased number of older adults, more risk of chronic non-communicable diseases, is expected to increase both developed and developing countries.The World Health Organization features the essential basic care as an integral component of an inclusive primary health care strategy.

Secondary care


Secondary care includes acute care: necessary treatment for a short period of time for a brief but serious illness, injury, or other health condition. This care is often found in a hospital emergency department. Secondary care includes skilled attendance during childbirth, intensive care, and medical imaging services. The term "secondary care" is sometimes used synonymously with "hospital care." However, many secondary care providers, such as psychiatrists, clinical psychologists, occupational therapists, most dental specialties or physiotherapists do not necessarily have hospitals in work. Some primary care services are delivered within hospitals. Depending on the organization and policy of the National Health System, patients may need to be a primary care provider for a referral before they are able to access secondary care. Physiotherapists are both primary and secondary care providers who do not require referral. In the United States, which is under a mixed market healthcare system, some physicians may voluntarily their practice to secondary care limit by requiring patients to be a primary care provider first . This restriction may be imposed under the terms of payment agreements in private or group health insurance plans. In other cases, medical specialists may see patients without a referral, and patients may decide whether self-referral is preferred. In the United Kingdom and Canada, the self-referral is self-referral to a medical specialist for secondary care. (or a primary care physician or another specialist) is considered necessary, regardless of whether the fund is from private insurance schemes or national health insurance. All health professionals, such as physical therapists, respiratory therapists, occupational therapists, speech therapistols, and dietitians, also commonly used in work care, accessible through either self-referral or through physician referral.

Tertiary care

The National Hospital for Neurology and Neurosurgery in London, United Kingdom is a specialist neurological hospital. Also MedicineTertiary care is special Examples of tertiary care services are cancerous, as well as referral health care. management, neurosurgery, cardiac surgery, plastic surgery, treatment for serious burns, advanced neonatology services, palliative, and other complex medical and surgical interventions.

Quaternary care

The term quaternary care is sometimes used as an extension of tertiary care Level of medicine which are highly specialized and not widely accessible. Experimental medicine and some types of uncommon diagnostic or surgical procedures are considered quaternary care. These services are usually offered only in a limited number of regional or national health care centers.Quaternary care is more prevalent in the United Kingdom.

Home and community care

See also: Public healthMany types of health care interventions deliver out of health facilities. They include many interventions of public health interest, such as food security surveillance, distribution of condoms and needle-exchange programs for the prevention of transmissible diseases. They also include the services of professionals in residential and community settings in support of self care, home care long-term care, helped living, treatment for substance use disorders of other types of health and social care services. Community rehabilitation services can help with loss of loss or loss loss after the mobility and independence. This can include prosthesis, orthotics or wheelchairs. Many countries, especially in the west are dealing with aging populations, so that one of the priorities of the health care system is to help the elderly live, independent lives in the comfort of their homes. There is a whole section of health care to provide seniors with help in day-to-day activities such as transportation and to the doctor's appointments and many other activities that are essential for their health and well-being. Although they provide home care for older adults in cooperation, family members and care workers may have their joint efforts towards the diverging attitude and values ​​of the harbor.Because statistics show that over 80 million Americans have taken off their primary job to care for a loved one,This state of affairs presents a challenge for the design of the ICT (information and communication technology). Many countries have begun offering programs such as Consumer Directed Personal Assistant Program to allow family members to take care of their loved ones without their entire income.With obesity in children, the health services are often set up up programs in schools aimed at educating children about nutritious eating habits, physical education, and the young teenagers to have positive self-image.

Ratings

Main article: Health care ratings Health care ratings are evaluated or evaluated by health care ratings. care and healthcare structures and or outcomes of health care services.This evaluation of quality is based on the criteria hospital quality health plan for quality physician qualityquality for other health professionals .file experience

Related fields

Halth care care extends beyond delivery of services to patients, encompassing many related fields, and is set within a larger picture of financing and governance structures. 

Health system

health systems by countryA health system, also sometimes referred to as a system of health care or system of healthcare is a organization of people, institutions and resources that provide healthcare services to populations in need.

Health care industry

Health Economics A group of 'Damas de Rojo' volunteering at their local hospital The healthcare industry includes several sectors that are dedicated to health care services and products. As a basic framework for defining the sector, the United Nations' International Standard Industrial Classification categorizes healthcare as in general consisting of hospital activities, medical and dental practice activities, and "other human health activities." The last class includes activities, or under the supervision of, nurses, midwives, physiotherapists, scientific or diagnostic According to industry and market classifications, such as the Global Industry Classification Standards and the Industry Classification Benchmark, many categories of medical include aboratories, pathology clinics, residential health facilities, patient advocates or other allied health professions. equipment, instruments and services including biotechnology, diagnostic laboratories and substances, drug manufacturing and delivery. For example, pharmaceuticals and other medical devices are the leading high technology exports of Europe and the United States.The United States dominates the biopharmaceutical field, accounting for three-quarters of the world's biotechnology revenue.

Health care research

Main articles:Medical research and Nursing research

See also: List of health care journals, List of medical journals, and list Healthcare science.

The quantity and quality of many health care interventions are improved through the results of science, such as advanced through the medical model of health which focuses on the illness through the illness of the diagnosis and effective treatment.

Many important developments have been conducted by the study of biomedical research and pharmaceutical research, which is based on the basis of evidence based on the medical care delivery and evidence of healthcare delivery. For example, in terms of pharmaceutical research and development expenses, Europe spends a Less than the United States (€ 22.50bn compared to € 27.05bn in 2006). The United States accounts for 80% of the world's research and development expenses in biotechnology.In addition, the results of health services research can lead to health care interventions of greater efficiency and equal delivery, as advanced through the social model of health and disability, which emphasizes the social changes that can be made to make healthier populous.Results from health services research often form the basis of evidence-based policy in health care systems. Health services research is also aided by initiatives in the field of artificial intelligence for the development of the system of clinical, which is clinical, useful, timely, sensitive to change, culturally sensitive, low burden, low cost, built into standard procedures, and include

Health care financing

There are usually five primary methods of healthcare systems

a:general taxation to the state, county or municipality

b:social health insurance

c:voluntary or private health insurance

d:out of pocket payments

e:donations to health charities

In most countries, the financing of healthcare services features a mixture of all five modes, but the distribution of the entire distribution is different in countries and over the time in countries.In all countries and jurisdictions, there are Many topics in the politics and evidence that can influence the decision of a government, private sector business or other g Roups to adopt a specific health policy regarding the financing structure. For example, social health insurance is where a nation's entire population is healthcare coverage. This coverage and the services are provided. In almost every jurisdiction with a government-funded health care system, a parallel private, and usually for profit, the system is allowed to operate.This is sometimes referred to as the health care of two-tier or healthcare universal. For example, in Poland, the cost of health services is borne by National Health Fund (funded by all citizens that pay health insurance contributions) in 2012, to 60.8 billion PLN (approximately 20 billion USD). The right to health services in Poland is given 99.9% of the population, including registered unemployed persons, their spouses.Health care administration and regulationSee also: Health professional requisitesThe management and administration of health care is another sector important to deliver of health care services. In particular, the practice of health professionals and the operation of healthcare institutions are usually regulated by national or state provincial authorities through appropriate regulatory bodies for the purpose of assurance.Most countries have credentialing staff in regulatory boards or health departments who document the certification or licensing of health workers and their work history.

Health information technology

Technology (HIT ) is the application of information processing, both hardware and software that deals with the storage, retrieval, sharing, and healthcare information, data, and knowledge for communication and decision making.Technology is a broad concept that deals with a species 'use and knowledge of tools and crafts, and how it affects a species' ability to control and adapt to its environment. However, a strict definition is elusive; "technology" can refer to material objects of humanity, such as machines, hardware or utensils, but also encompass broader themes, including systems, methods of organization, and techniques.For HIT, technology represents computers and communications attributes that can be networked to build systems for moving health information. Information technology is yet another integral aspect of HIT.

Health information technology can be divided into more components such as

Electronic Health Record (EHR),Electronic Medical Record (EMR), Personal Health Record (PHR), Medical Practice Management Software (MPM), Health Information. Exchange (HIE) and many more. There are several purposes for the use of HIT within the health care industry.

Furthermore, the use of HIT is expected to improve the quality of health care, medical problems and health care costs to improve health care service efficiency. Health information technology components: Electronic Health Record (EHR) An EHR is a patient's comprehensive medical history , and may include records from multiple providers.Electronic Medical Record (EMR) An EMR contains a standard medical and clinical data in one's provider's office.Personal Health Record (PHR) A PHR History that is kept privately, for personal use.Medical Practice Management Software (MPM) is designed to streamline the daily operation of a medical facility. Also known as the management management software or practice management system (PMS).Health Information Exchange (HIE) - Health Information Exchange allows healthcare professionals and patients to properly access and secure a patient's vital medical information electronically sharing.